Can You Adjust for Quality, Condition, and Effective Age?

I just finished reviewing an appraisal report where the appraiser labeled the subject a Q3, and a comp Q2; he then made some pretty hefty adjustments to compensate.  “No problem,” I thought “so far as long as the rating and adjustments are supported.”  

In the commentary, the appraiser made this statement, “Sale 3 is adjusted for superior quality because materials are newer.”  Hmmm.  

Appraisal adjustmentsIn other reports I have reviewed, I have seen my peers sometimes make adjustments for quality, condition, and/or effective age for essentially the same reason; comps in better or worse ‘shape’ than the subject.  The thing is, you can’t double dip.

Let’s talk about three sections on the grid of most of our appraisal reports; the Quality section, the Condition section, and the Effective Age.  They are different.  Often the quality and condition get mixed up.  It is easy to do.  If I do not stop and think about it, I make the same mistake.  Look at it this way; quality has to do with the types of materials and condition has to do with the wear and tear of those materials.  You can have a high quality granite countertop that has never been maintained giving it a poor condition.  Materials (quality) has not changed, but the wear and tear (condition) has decreased.  On the flip side, you can have a brand new, not a scratch on it, laminate countertop.  High condition, low quality.  Then there is age.  Frankly, effective age is difficult to separate from condition (because they are closely related).  Therefore, you may consider only making adjustment to one or the other.  Where some appraisers make a mistake is in making a large adjustment for effective age and then making another large adjustment for condition with the same explaination, “Sale 3 was older than the subject and materials were worn.”  That is not to say there are not times when both adjustments can and should be made, but be careful not to conflate the two.  

When we are busy, it is easy to get into automatic mode and forget to think.  Slow down.  Do not make mistakes when it comes to adjustments.  Every line is on the form for a reason.  Stop and think about each adjustment as you make them.  

 

39 Comments on “Can You Adjust for Quality, Condition, and Effective Age?”

  1. Pingback: Can You Adjust for Quality, Condition, and Effective Age? - Appraisal Buzz

  2. Quality is based on the home when constructed ie Brick vs vinyl exterior, tile floor vs lino in baths & kitchen, Hardwood vs laminate , hardwood vs carpet, shingle roof vs slate or wood shake.

    Condition of the home is based on the home as of the effective date ie had the home been well maintained, updated, or renovated since construction.

    When I make a condition adjustment I also assume that the effective age adjustment if any is accounted for in the condition adjustment.

    1. What if the a buyer purchased a 20-year old home and decided to add hardwood floors, crown molding around the ceilings, marble floor coverings in the kitchen, a trey ceiling in the living room a couple of years after living there. The quality was just enhanced, but it wasn’t at the time of construction. You’re theory is flawed. You’re and SRA too right?

      1. The quality of the home has NOT changed, the condition has. Go back to the basics. Effective is how old the home appears, it can be lower or higher than actual age. It is how the home appears. Adding high end finish to a low quality home does NOT change quality, just condition.

        1. I disagree and am confused. Included in the UAD quality ratings are instructions to take into account upgrades to ‘materials, components, and ornamentation’ (in addition to design & workmanship). Crown moulding, hardwood & marble flooring, tray ceilings, etc. would all certainly be considered upgrades to materials, components, and ornamentation.

    2. In part Dan, there is some truth to what you say. Everyone should go back and reread or read for the first time (above ground pool) the quality ratings and definitions within the UAD definitions addendum. Was it a custom home at the time of build? Was it individually designed by an architect for a specified user? Was it part of a low end or high end tract development? Did the exterior have high-quality refinements and ornamentation? Did the interior have high quality refinements and detail? Is there 10 foot ceiling in place of traditional 8 foot ceilings? Things can obviously change over time, but in part the definitions as provided to us do ask us to consider the at the time of construction build quality.

  3. I consider Quality adjustments for variations in materials, Condition adjustments for noted variances in wear & tear, then Age adjustments compensate for original versus newer systems..

  4. Quick question. Are you always making your age adjustments based upon effective age only? Just curious how you’re addressing actual age vs. effective age. On a renovated property with an actual age of say 50 years, are you only considering effective age or are you making a condition adjustment which is then offset somewhat by an actual age adjustment when compared to a newer property. For purposes of the question let’s assume our subject is 20 years old actual. And of course let’s assume that there are limited comps available. Never happens to me of course. Asking for a friend.

  5. DannCann… Are you seriously kidding me?!?!?

    EVERYTHING is based on the home as of the effective date. Even “subject-to” items.

    Secondly, if you honestly believe quality is ” based on the home when constructed”, you are in the wrong profession. Quality is quality. Is this really something someone needs to point out to you?

    1. See my response to Dann Cann as it relates to the requirement for us to in part at least consider the at the time of build quality. Does it deserve 1% of consideration (1950’s home), 99% of consideration (new construction)? Love it, like it, or hate it, we should be reading the UAD definitions addendum, applying logic, and in part giving weight to our ratings based on the information we are required to understand.

      1. IF your were trained correctly, you base this on your professional assessment NOT on UAD, it almost never matches, that is where experience and education enters.

  6. I’d suggest the condition of the comp is as of the sale date – how many times have you ridden by a comp and see construction crews on site – great evidence that the condition was being improved, and perhaps a call to someone who knows what is being done. Maybe even call the contractor and ask what type of work are they doing – use the opportunity to get an update on what it cost to get the work done. It might also give you a good indication of cost to cure if your subject is in similar condition. This discussion highlights the weakness of the UAD – how often have you appraised something that was somewhere in between C2 & C3 – or Q2 and Q3.

  7. Personally, I believe that effective age adjustments are bogus, most often misapplied and not supported. If you have not been inside that home, do you really know what the effective age is? Let me guess, you ask the Realtor because they don’t have a dog in that fight. In review, I see these applied incorrectly and/or not supported all the time, but some people think that because there is a line there on the form and the numbers are different, that they need to adjust.
    While an argument can be made for each, I suppose, I feel most confident in applying condition adjustments to reflect wear and tear, updates, etc.
    As for Quality, this seems pretty straightforward. If you don’t know the difference, and cant explain it to the reader, there are plenty of classes you should take. (You know, a real class to further your professional knowledge – not just the USPAP update and whatever you can find on line to meet the minimum your state requires)

    1. Seriously….. “While an argument can be made for each, I suppose, I feel most confident in applying condition adjustments to reflect wear and tear, updates, etc.” Wear and tear, updates, etc. IS effective age. Effective age can easily be calculated – as many elements of comparison in the sales comparison approach – but it is apparent from 99% of the appraisals I review that appraisers don’t know how, don’t try to learn how, and/or would rather NOT make a market derived adjustment to keep the gross’s and nets low (even though that’s not even a Fannie/Freddie guideline anymore). For example, the 3 adjusted sales in an actual appraisal I’ve recently seen indicated $156,500 with gross of 11% – $150,500 with gross of 13.2% – with gross of 5.9%. Final opinion of market value…….. $151,000 – and no reasoning or explanation why. Now, my own personal research and CALCULATIONS indicated the condition of that 3rd sale, i.e. its effective age, to be much lower. Verification with the realtor involved with that sale revealed that it had recently been updated/remodeled. I also confirmed that for myself with the photos provided by MLS – which are in most cases just as good as going into the home expect that you miss out on the way the home smells (sarcasm intended)….. If that 3rd sale had been adjusted down for this difference in EFFECTIVE AGE it would have been more in line with Sales 1 and 2 in terms of value indication and gross adjustments, thus tightening the range and adding credibility to the reconciled opinion of value. That adjustment could have also been made in regards to UAD definition, say C3 vs. C4 or even C4 vs. C5, but appraisers are also afraid of the dreaded collateral underwriter (CU) so they most often rate EVERYTHING as C3 – which is also the wrong way to do things. That is not what CU or UAD are for. In fact, appraisers trying to skirt around making adjustments is the reason we have to deal with stuff like that in the first place.

      Do whats right, not whats easy.

    2. We are fortunate that our MLS provides 25 photos of the home which generally makes it easy to determine condition, view etc. If interior photos are minimal, it typically indicates poor condition. If you can’t see the view from interior photos it likely indicates there is little if any value.

  8. I think some of the responders have gotten off track, confusing effective age with the effective date of the appraisal, resulting in comments that are irrelevant., kind of like that old Saturday Night Live skit where the girl goes on a rant about something, then she gets corrected, and she says “never mind…” Good article overall. Actual age can be confusing when you take, say, a 90-year old house, gut it to the studs, and make a room addition that is larger than the original structure. The grid asks for actual age, not effective age; it just makes us have to write a longer narrative. I wish the grid would allow effective age.

    1. I am looking for some advice on disputing an appraisal my insurance company has used in determining in a dwelling settlement offer after a fire loss.
      Subject is an updated 1920s victorian.
      Properties used as comparisons in the appraisal were in less desirable, lower value locations and included dated, distressed and foreclosure properties.
      All three comp properties were lacking updates.
      Home #1 was a foreclosure in notably distressed condition with structural issues and only a partial basement.
      home #2 is located next to apartment buildings.
      home #3 borders business district & is given duplicate credit as basement and garage in lieu of a separate garage.
      Unadjusted amenities include:
      Leaded beveled glass transom sidelight entry.
      Built-in solid wood kitchen cabinets with undercabinet lighting.
      Built in Microwave/vent hood.
      Built in stainless dishwasher.
      Upgraded lighting fixtures.
      Partially finished basement.
      Additional storage (in attic & beneath landings).
      Rear deck.
      Freestanding deck.
      Full covered front porch.
      3 – walk-in closets (3rd floor).
      Hardwood flooring.
      Marble flooring.
      Tile flooring.
      Open Walnut staircase.
      Butler stair.
      Laundry chute.
      Solid wood doors.
      Upgraded electrical.
      Upgraded plumbing.
      Water softener.

      Any guidance would be appreciated.

  9. I would remind you that the form DOESN’T say “Effective age”–it says “Actual Age”. I often include a statement, “While the actual age of the subject/comps may vary somewhat all have been maintained and updated; the effective age of the subject and sales is considered similar; no adjustment deemed necessary”.

  10. The answer to the headline is, YES. As three distinctively separate categories with their own dedicated lines on the sales comparison grid, each one must be independently analyzed and thus each one can be adjusted for if relevant. The question becomes, why would you use such a comparable and what liability will you face when your client interoperates your report? Will they simply not understand and automatically send it off for a desk or field review (higher liability)? I will never delegate the extensive review process I perform prior to the acceptance of an order so that I can eliminate such orders from ever being accepted. Legal or not legal, trained or not trained, having non licensed office staff accept orders on my behalf, will never happen. This policy has eliminated 80% of what I call problem assignments. Dustin often speaks of the benefit of technology, but when volume and money overrules your professional obligation (programs set to auto accept every order), I say good luck to you. When technology allows blast orders to be sent out and the race to ignorance is on (first one to say yes wins), don’t call me for advice when that 30 second review you did before you said yes to the assignment bites you in the ass.

    As it relates to quality and condition, most here are making it more difficult than it is. We have been given the answers by way of the UAD descriptions (read and memorize the paragraphs) and OUR opinions don’t matter. Support you ratings and designation by explaining what sentences were given the most weight. Excuse me while I consider triple dipping by making a separate room count, bedroom count, and a GLA adjustment.

  11. Has anyone else noticed the nasty tenor of replies given by many appraisers? Seems to make no difference what the question is and is certainly not limited to this forum alone. I thought appraisers were supposed to be professionals with the ability to politely converse with others. I’ve posted questions on several appraiser forums because I’m interested in differing opinions. As the thread moves along, comments about my mother appear.

    1. I’ve noticed the same thing, but as I have often been quoted, “I have learned more from those who disagree with me, than those who agree with me”.

  12. Jim, I have always wanted to participate in appraisers forums but am put off by the unprofessionalism of many. I skip over the “National Enquirer” responders, ignore the blasts and hope I can get the info I need from a “real” appraiser. I enjoy the conversation but there are a few that need to not post at all. I appreciate all those who have responded with good information that we all can use and apply in our own work. I especially like getting new verbiage and fresh ideas of how to look at things. Those of us who don’t interact in an office have that appreciation. Kudos to those appraisers who respond this way.

    1. I agree with the unprofessionalism of many, but as a licensed professional who provides an opinion all day (market value), I welcome other voices. It is up to me to independently verify the data, while just dismissing it on the surface and turning a blind eye to what may be reality to others, could be a disservice to my client, or our industry. If we give weight to certain comps to lead our readers to our opinion (our value), then applying similar tactics to the individual sentences found in the UAD Definitions Addendum, then we will provide consistency to the reader. Hope this helps.

    1. I get it Jim, but as I have expressed before, although we complete the same forms, our problems can be federal, state, regional, county, city, neighborhood, AMC specific, etc. We can learn a lot from each other as your problem may not be mine. Good day.

  13. Coach there is no line item for “Effective Age” on a 1004. The line item on the 1004 is “Actual Age”. This is likely part of the misunderstanding. Quality, Age, and Condition are three very different items. Each line item for the Subject property such as Quality are as of the effective date of the report, regardless of what it looked like when it was built. Each line item for the Comparable is as of the sale date.

  14. Condition is the curable component of depreciation. Age is the incurable component. Quality is current quality, not relative to when the house was built. If a previous owner upgraded a Q4 house to Q3 then it is now Q3 until someone removes the upgrades.

    This isn’t rocket science, but extracting these adjustments can be time consuming.

  15. In reading the blog and the comments it would seem to me that more needs to be done to educate appraisers as to how in part we are being scored on our work. Its not enough to say “I had the proper old school training and my report will hold up”, but rather the teacher is using a new scoring model that we all need to pay attention to (UAD reports / Collateral Underwriter (CU)). The panel of our peers now refers to big brothers score on any given comparable (Condition, Quality, (Neutral, Adverse, Beneficial), times have changed. Our comments and explanations need to be in-depth (old school), however we should also incorporate the new terms of the day. If the teacher has said “The rating should not change when that property transaction is compared to other properties” then tells us “except in rare cases when more accurate property data becomes available”, then use their exact words against them (supply the additional property data) and make changes as warranted. Keep a copy at arms reach of FannieMaes lender letters as it relates to the Uniform Collateral Data Portal (UCDP), memorize or refer to the explanations of the various categories. If a C2 rating says “ALL outdated components and finishes have been updated, have ALL been done? Can you call that flipped property a C2 when it says “Dwellings in this category either are almost new”…, when you confirmed it has the original roof, electrical, and plumbing? I would love to see a 7 hour course on UAD, UCDP, etc. for our continuing education. Seek the truth.

  16. I always find the conversations appraiser have with each other so telling. In this industry, it should be the appraisers that dictate what forms would be best, what format the appraisals will be given out and where the client can go to get said appraisal. The “Lone wolf” mentality that has been inbred into this profession since it berth out of it mother, dear ol’ Mamma Realtor has done nothing other than allow everyone else to dictate what, when, where and how all of you will do your job. I can’t help but be amazed how, as a whole, you continually will eat your own. No other profession or group in the lending industry does as good of a job at destroying itself or at a minimum, castrating itself willingly. It could be that this attitude is due to the fact that most of you are old enough to have appraised property in the fabled Lost City of the Incas. What is even more incredible is that you are so quick to turn on your own, but still have love enough for your Mamma to pay her dues and fees while she blames you for her lost commission, errr I mean those poor souls that just wanted to buy that special home that may not have been priced quite right for the market but the suckers… loving family really wanted. Who am I? I am the one that fights for higher fees that I do not see, collect unpaid debt from companies that think all they have to do is change their name and stupidly think I will not track them down. I am the one that speaks with the reps and contacts from our clients and find out information that is used to decide when is the right time to raise our fees or when to bail on a company because they are going under. I am the one that seeks out answers that I hear the appraisers talk about and drop off a paper with information they needed without a word. I am the one that watches the waves come in and see a great an honorable profession push it’s own into the waters rather than coming together. I get to see people who put their careers on the line with every assignment and take on the forces that push and prod to see the value their way, to speak with homeowners and buyers who have spoke with their lender, realtor and are furious and or heartbroken that the deal did not go through. During all of this, I see people who stand by their opinion of value and to those who will actually listen, take the time to explain to those families how the opinion was developed and answer questions that the lender or realtor could have answered but passed it along for you to take the heat on. Then bear the pressure of the unknown, continuously wondering if that irate person will complain to the Attorney General’s office? Will a client that is upset because you did play ball, wait until they get a report they can send off to ruin you, maybe black list you even when that is not suppose to be allowed? We have enough entities out there that would love for all of you to kill each other so that they can come up with an alternative they have better control over.
    Wow, I think this is my first rant! I almost deleted this message but this is what I would have said if I were having a conversation and the other person fell into a coma so I could complete my babbling. Obviously this was much more than was needed for the silly attitudes and responses here but it is still relevant when you look at the professions attitude as a whole.

    Leave you with a mantra we came up with and used while deployed.
    Keep on Keeping on my friends. As long as we do, we can make it through.

    O.G.

    1. I may have appraised that lost city of Incas. I don’t know , it’s been so long!
      I just finished getting off my own soap box.
      This has been an industry that does eat it’s own!
      It’s been pathetic for decades.
      I remember when everybody was scared sh less if we wanted to talk about fees. Maybe they still are.
      We’ve been misused forever. I tried getting out a while back. I was trying to get into another business, while keeping my foot in this. But for different reasons I’ve had to come back full time.
      When these amc’s were mandated, appraisers started working for half price, right away!
      That was ridiculous!
      I never did do work for a 1/2 price amc.
      That’s what helped to continue to kill this industry, along with the overwhelming willingness to cut prices to grab more business.
      They would speak of “Volume”!!!!
      Like there was less work to do if there was a volume of work!!
      All the while them adding more and more things to had to and be responsible for!@!@!
      Next, they’re gonna want us to cut the grass before we do the inspection!
      It took years before the guys doing amc work would start to get their fees back.
      And that was done by a few good, hardworking appraisers fighting for it.
      My hat is off to those guys!!
      Anyway, I agree with so much of what you said.
      But actually, the part about explaining to everybody everything about their appraisal,….well we are supposed to be producing a product that is sent to people that understand what our product is.
      Sorry, but there is not enough time in the day, days in the week or weeks in the month to do that.
      I am working 5 1/2 to 7 days a week just to try to make it.
      My house and property has gone to s it, because I have no time, at least 3 days a week I am up to 2,3,4 am trying to get reports done.
      The 1004mc is real inaccurate, useless piece of garbage!
      This goes in mine:
      “. With only one 12 month period, it is hard to draw many hard conclusions as to what actual Overall Trends are. It appears that it may only indicate seasonal trends. Also, any trends shown above are not conclusive evidence that all other properties in the market area are mirroring the trend of the properties that are comaprable to the subject. This 1004MC has its conclusions based on statistical analysis. When the data sets are small(like this subject’s) any change can significantly shift the conclusion & therefore makes this data analysis weak in it’s credibility.”
      I am using data relative to my subject, but with that limited data you can’t make a “TREND”, but of course it make one!
      And if you use general data from a larger market, there is no reason to believe that it is mirroring the subject you are appraising.
      And then the best part is, when this 1004 makes it’s “trend” and price go up, or it go down, THEY WANT YOU TO DO TIME ADJUSTMENTS
      that affect you subject’s value, up or down, from what you had worked hard at trying to get it accurate!
      Well, it looks like I got back on my soap box.
      I’d better get off again. bye

  17. New to the game here!
    Let us all recognize that there are, in rare circumstances, situations whereby it is obvious that there is a trend that the buyers are reacting to an “age” of a home and not simply its condition or quality of construction. This can be verified in most part, through viewing the photos and reading comments on the MLS. This may occur in only 1 of 100-200 properties appraised in my area of work. It was quite obvious to me in a recent report where the condition and updates of the comps were very similar, however the prices noticeably varied within the same product and community – assuming all else to be similar. Within every age variance of 8-10 years, there was a definite variance in price. Sometimes it has to jump out at you as in this case where it was seriously obvious. I guess the buyer was recognizing some assumptions on anticipated costs of replacement of some items/systems such as a roof, water heater, windows, etc. And, I agree that we as a group tend to take the short and easy path to make the condition adjustments instead of what we recognize, so as to not have to take the time to explain our observations. I get it! But right is still right.

  18. I always use effective based on percentage sales price after site value is subtracted. Determine percent based on percentage difference of subject and comparable effective age/total life. My line item adjustments are more than 10% a lot but for rural properties seems to be the best method available.

  19. For a while now, there is only Actual Age on the comparison grid. So there is few, if ever, times to apply an adjustment on that line; at least in my market. I didn’t have time to read all of the comments, but most were good. As far as Age & Condition, this is a comment I make, and go by:

    *Adjustment for Age & Condition, if any, is an adjustment representing the overall estimated market perceived condition, taking into account age, any updating or remodeling & overall maintained condition thereof. These adjustments are combined & are indicated on the condition line.

    As far as Quality goes; sometimes both Qual & Cond adjustments are warranted. Sometimes for full designation differences(Q3 to Q4 or visa versa). Sometimes I explain that the general construction quality is the same in subject and comps, but different quality amenities/finishes, such as flooring or counters, etc. So there is the same quality (Q4 vs Q4), but does have a warranted nominal adjustment applied. And there is never any question from underwriters.
    When I started as an appraiser(30++yrs ago), the aim was to determine the most accurate value.
    For a long while now, we are just trying to paint the picture that the people with the gold want to see; like what was said way far above, not trying to have too large a Gross &/or Net adjustments.
    So with the parameters that they have set AND us trying not to have too much Gross or Net; there is a new control on what the estimated values can and cannot be.
    Sometimes valuing lower, and sometimes higher than we would have calculated, so as to not have those high G & N adjustments.
    I suppose, since all these requirements have been piled on little by little over time, they Are Now The Values, so it’s a moot point.

    (((although the definition back then was the “highest possible sales price”, which is inflationary in itself. Then it was rightly changed to most probable sales price.)))

    As far as double dipping goes; here’s another thing I do. And to tell you the truth, with the differences that I have to deal with between “recent comparable sales” I cannot see any other way of doing it.
    LOCATION,SITE&VIEW:
    ” The Total Value Difference, if any, for the subject’s site vs a comparable’s site, is made up of any value differences, negative or positive, pertaining to, any one or all, of the: location, site or view attributes. This Total Value Difference is represented in one composite numeric figure on the Site Line.”

    Another comment that may be needed if you have to compare to sales in other subdivisions or neighborhoods, or with rural properties with different unit prices/acre, is:
    “Depending on location, prices per: acre, fr.ft., sq.ft., site, etc., vary within the subject’s market area. Therefore, differences in adjustments may not be consistent with differences in site size.”

    You are trying to compare a site value with another site value.
    Those values can be from one or more attributes of the site.
    The Location and the View could be considered attributes of the Site.
    The site is what you are trying to get the value of with these two factors.
    The Location and/or the site can be labeled as being Neutral , Beneficial or Adverse, with description, BUT DON’T try adjusting each line.
    Find the value of each site and compare site value to site value, and just make the adjustment on the Site Line.

    On the grid: Overall: Neutral
    Factor 1:Other (describe)
    Desc: ButHi’r$/s.f. Is an example.

    It could be a neighborhood with Same size lots, but have Higher Priced lots.
    Or it could be a neighborhood with Smaller size lots, but have Higher Priced lots.
    It would be nice if we could always get sales to compare to with the Same size, age, quality, color & bird bath out front, BUT BEGGARS CAN’T BE CHOOSERS.
    Well, this is so long that it probably won’t get in.
    I have to get off my soap box now.

  20. DPS, couldn’t agree more regarding site value. I like your explanation. It takes a lot of the subjectivity out of it and in my opinion increases the reliability of the report because you end up with one adjustment that takes care of three features. There are parts of my coverage area where the market area has competing high end water frontage sites, sites with views, sites with both and vastly differing acreage among other features. This method eliminates many offsetting adjustments that lead to unusually high G and N adjustments. I hadn’t really heard of anybody doing this until I recently attended the valuation expo and now. When I started approaching it this way it was kind of a Eureka moment for me. I was doing things like slope formulas to find out the the price per foot of water frontage etc.; which can still be useful but it was maddening at times and time consuming. Anyhow, I’m glad I read to the end of this thread and didn’t give up on it like I kept telling myself to. There was finally a payoff.

  21. This is an interesting conversation and I wish there were more methodologies disposed for extracting quality adjusting from the comp to the subject. The comp has limited data and I made the grave error of telling the realtor, who’d already divulged prominent information about the upgrades to the comp, the address of the subject, which she admitted had a interest in and now back pedaled and everything said after that was a contradiction and a lie… So we have updating, but they were gutted. We have new stuff, but they now have new guts. To say they spent 100k on it would be conservative, but half of the SF adjustments are about that, where to get supportable data to use in this example has got me searching. Also the comp has quartz counters and porcelain tile while the subject is ceramic tile and vinyl floors. 89 years old

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